The extra-versatile twin-channel layout with independent controls delivers a wide variety of tones from clean to overdrive. The Sonzera 20—which we recently reviewed—packs a hell of a punch for players who need a versatile workhorse amp that pairs well with pedals and sounds incredible on its own for any style of music. While the Sonzera 50 Combo is well suited to the stage, the 20 is easy to haul to gigs, has a lower output that’s better suited for the studio—and its “American style” voicing thanks to its 6L6 power tubes (the Sonzera 50 features EL34 tubes).
As a beginner, it is best to avoid making a pawn shop, flea market, or yard sale purchase unless you are shopping with somebody who has experience in purchasing a guitar. Having never purchased a guitar, you may not know what to look for in terms of damage or guitar quality. With that being said, a local music retail shop is your best bet. You may also shop online with a reputable company, although be sure to review the business’ return policy.
While you can learn on any of these, we recommend a solid-body guitar, which includes all the models featured on this page. The main advantage of a solid body guitar for beginners is that they are easier to control in front of an amplifier. By this we mean you are unlikely to experienced squealing feedback from the amp, which can be a big annoyance when it happens all the time. Solid body guitars are often simpler to hold as well, as hollow models tend to be a bit bigger in size.
Developed by Martin in 1916, the dreadnought shape changed the landscape of acoustic guitars. Thanks to its punchy sound, loud volume and improved bottom end, dreadnoughts quickly rose to popularity and has since been copied by virtually every acoustic guitar manufacturer. Today, if you're thinking acoustic guitar, the most probable image in your mind would be of a Martin Dreadnought or one of its many clones.
The Epiphone Dove Pro is such a good guitar that it’s going to be a contender for a top pick in pretty much any list, but in this one we’ve given it the title of best value electric acoustic. You can spend a lot more money and not get much more guitar, and you can even spend more money and not get a guitar as good. The Dove Pro is that accomplished.
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I love this guitar! I am so happy with this axe and haven't put it down since it arrived. I don't think that you will find a better value in the Martin lineup, especially for an all solid wood guitar and a free HSC. People complain because this wasn't made in the USA, but I don't think that anyone would complain after playing this beauty. The action right out of the box was perfect, just like any high end Martin should be (plays like my HD28 and D18). This thing plays like butter and is silky smooth. Some people complain about the stratabond neck, but I love the feel of it and it is rock solid and should last forever! The finish and style of the guitar is very minimalistic, which is something that I love. It may be too plain for some people, but I love it. Something just

Dirk Wacker lives in Germany and is fascinated by anything related to old Fender guitars and amps. He plays country, rockabilly, and surf music in two bands, works regularly as a session musician for a local studio, and writes for several guitar mags. He’s also a hardcore guitar and amp DIY-er who runs an extensive website—singlecoil.com—on the subject.
The Martin F Series bit the dust in mid-’65, to be supplanted by the somewhat updated, nattier GT Series of bound archtop hollowbody electrics. The first few prototypes were dubbed the XTE Series and produced in 1965. The guitars were renamed the GT Series and swung into production in the beginning of 1966. The GT Series consisted basically of two models, the GT-70 and GT-75. These were thinlines with two f-holes, a 15th fret neck joint (actually more frets were clear of the body), bound 22-fret rosewood fingerboards, dot inlays, and new, bound, wide-flared three-and-three headstocks with a concave curve in the pointed crown.
• Lighten Up: Typically, heavier strings project more natural sound when struck, but for most live performers it’s practical to have an acoustic guitar with a pick-up for plug-and-play situations. Having a pickup in an acoustic guitar allows for the use of lighter gauge strings. Some acoustic guitars even respond well to slinky electric sets, like .10s, providing electric-guitar-like playability without sacrificing the chime of acoustic tones.
Note from the Editors: While exploring the “Psychology of Tone” last month, we learned that digging into the mushiest part of any signal chain (the listener’s noodle) leads to a better understanding of the tonal journey involved. The journey itself may be more important than you realize. We continue this series dedicated to messing with your head with a look at the science involved with the creation of those tones. Everything can be explained with science, right?
While experimenting with the Vortex for this article, I was impressed by quite how well the ambient mics seemed to turn a close-miked guitar sound into something that sounded like it was on a record, but the downside of this approach for most home recordists will be that the Vortex is not easy to recreate in a smaller studio — so I thought I'd pass on some ways I found to make it more manageable on a smaller scale. One problem most small studios have is that they don't have large numbers of screens, but in practice I found that I was able to get decent results by putting the guitar cab in the corner of the room and using one or both of the room boundaries in place of the screens. Visconti's trick of aiming ambient mics at the studio glass also turned out to be handy to increase the apparent distance of the farther ambient mic.
TC Electronic's Hall of Fame reverb pedal is stacked with features and is easily our top recommendation from this list. The first perk is a mode selector that gives you a total of ten different reverb types, in addition to the TonePrint option. TonePrint is TC Electronic's signature feature that allows you to program tones into your pedal designed by artists and popular musicians.
Barney Kessel was known for playing his Gibson hollow body jazz guitar and used it almost exclusively on his own recordings. But when it came to rock, pop, r&b and blues recording sessions with the most popular performers of the early '60s such as Elvis Presley, Sam Cooke, Connie Francis, T-Bone Walker, Ike & Tina Turner, Phil Spector, Dinah Washington and Bobby Darin, Kessel turned to his Kay Barney Kessel Artist guitar.
Mahogany is a durable wood, often described as dense and that is used in the construction of guitars. The main advantage of purchasing an instrument made from this material is the fact that it highlights the unit’s bass and midrange. Therefore, if you are into mellower tones, this is the material that you should pay attention to. The resulting guitars made from this material are usually brown.
The main purpose of the bridge on a classical guitar is to transfer the vibration from the strings to the soundboard, which vibrates the air inside of the guitar, thereby amplifying the sound produced by the strings. The bridge holds the strings in place on the body. Also, the position of the saddle, usually a strip of bone or plastic that supports the strings off the bridge, determines the distance to the nut (at the top of the fingerboard).
The focus of my career has been audio journalism, but I’ve been active as a musician since taking up guitar seriously in the 1970s. I’ve played various stringed instruments with jazz, rock, and folk groups in New York and Los Angeles, and I currently play double bass in three jazz groups in Los Angeles. (I sub regularly in a couple more groups.) Having conducted innumerable multi-listener comparisons of audio products over some 25 years, I have a good idea of how to conduct fair product tests. I own two guitar amps, which I loan to visiting guitarists and use with my electric ukuleles, and I’ve even built a couple of guitar amps, so I understand how they work.

The initial single-pickup production model appeared in 1950, and was called the Esquire. Fewer than fifty guitars were originally produced under that name, and most were replaced under warranty because of early manufacturing problems. In particular, the Esquire necks had notruss rod and many were replaced due to bent necks. Later in 1950, this single-pickup model was discontinued, and a two-pickup model was renamed the Broadcaster. From this point onwards all Fender necks incorporated truss rods. The Gretsch company, itself a manufacturer of hollowbody electric guitars (and now owned by Fender), claimed that “Broadcaster” violated the trademark for its Broadkaster line of drums, and as a newcomer to the industry, Fender decided to bend and changed the name to Telecaster, after the newly popular medium of television. (The guitars manufactured in the interim bore no name, and are now popularly called ‘Nocasters.’) The Esquire was reintroduced as a one-pickup Telecaster, at a lower price.
He revolutionized music by combining two different guitar styles who were begging to be played together, blues and country. It was through this courage and confidence that Berry was able to convey his slick attitude that made everyone stop and listen. Sadly, however, even though his lyrics and performances were positively received, the artist himself did not have as positive a reception. He was said to be quite hard to get along with… but that didn’t stop his band swinging along. A sign of complete trust in what they were achieving together.
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Eric Clapton was in a bad mood during the photoshoot for Blues Breakers. The 1966 Clapton/John Mayall collaboration sees Clapton on the album art reading a copy of UK comic book the Beano. He was so aghast and bored by the idea of a photoshoot that day that he refused to make eye contact with the photographer, therefore settling on staring at a comic instead. Nicknamed “The Beano Album”, it’s often considered to be one of the most important guitar recordings ever made.
Super nice guys! They were really helpful from the get go and didn't hover like a lot of shops do to try and make a sale. Found out the gentleman behind the counter was actually from back home in Ohio and we traded some stories. He then directed us to some great places to have lunch and even gave us tips on what airline to take on our next trips out. Will definitely visit again just for the atmosphere and friendliness of he staff.

Gibbons has also twisted more than a few towering tall tales in his time, but his life is so surreal that it’s hard to tell where the truth ends and the trip takes over. His colorful manner of speech, known as “Gibbonics,” has made him one of Guitar World’s favorite interview subjects, especially since his poetic ponderings are loaded with insight, wisdom and a unique sense of humor.
Sounds cool! You’re right that flats are a key to the ’50s Nashville sound. But a lot of guitarists forget that almost EVERYONE used flats until the latter part of the ’60s. Early Beatles, Stones, Who, Kinks, Motown and other R&B, surf, and of course anything jazz-related — it’s all flatwound guitar work till ’66, ’67 or so. Also, the main reason we migrated away from nickel is because the material became markedly more expensive at the end of the decade. (Though yes, some did prefer the brighter tones of replacement materials.)
The Blues Harp has been around since the early 1970s. Until the 1990s, it was functionally identical to the Marine Band, the only differences being the cover plates and the varnish on the front of the wood comb, and the Blues Harp's profile was thinner as well. At one point, Johnny Cash promoted the Blues Harp.[20] In the 1990s, Hohner made the Blues Harp part of its Modular System (MS) line. This new Blues Harp lost its uniqueness, and is interchangeable with the other models in the MS line, but it currently remains the standby of many players who use MS harps.
Run a length of wire (approx two feet is usually plenty) through the jack mounting hole and down into the cavity. When you see the wire in the cavity pull it up through the F hole. Make sure the wire is long enough for one end to stick out the jack hole, and the other to stick out the F hole. Tape the jack hole end of the wire to the guitar with masking tape, or tie it to the strap button. This will ensure it doesn’t fall through the jack hole while you’re working on the other end.
MY kid brother has been playing drums since he was a kid , until I snuck him into a bar at 15 one night and he set in with the house band , he played all my music. He was good so he & the lead guitarist clicked & they released a CD that took off & then the guitarist was killed , my brother got a doctorate in music and has played on several good CD's , MTB being but one. he can now play nearly everything and has released two more CD,s ,and owns his own studio , me I'm only an electrician but I understand Harmonic heating in electronics . its right that a watt is a watt,& it's a way to measure power & its sold in kilowatt hours, but even though a watts is a watt when measured, its a measurement of energy , it still depends on how it's used as to how far it goes or what you get from it ,it has a lot to do with how clean or distorted it is as to how loud it seems , people will perceive it differently , the only way to find to find how loud ? a decibel meter, another measurement .

The desire for innovative sounds has intrigued musicians in every culture since the dawn of time. Oscillating the volume of a note is an ancient technique — we’ve been able to do it with our voices as long as we’ve been capable of singing. Any musician playing a stringed instrument can create tremolo effect — they simply move the bow or finger back and forth while sustaining a note, as violinists and cellists do. But what about other sounds? How has the addition of mechanical and digital devices changed our music?

Students and expert alike describe this guitar as a fun instrument, and goes further by commenting that it has exceeded their expectations. From its fast action playability to the quality of the finish, the Epiphone SGSpecial continues to rake in compliments. Several people even said that it comes surprisingly close to the feel and sound of a Gibson SG.
Playability and tone are two of its most commended traits. Many describe its neck as very easy on the hands, while others describe the overall playing experience to be better than their other acoustic guitars. The TK-40D preamp gets a lot of nod from users who want to fine tune their amplified sound, while there are also many who are satisfied with its acoustic sound.
If you choose, every hole is drilled for each component, including neck, bridge, pickguard and strap button mounting holes. If you choose the optional snap together wiring, then no soldering is required; all electronics connect together with easy to attach connectors. We have done most of the hard work for you! The body needs finish sanding only but should require no filling.
There are two main types of electric guitar bridges. There is the "Tune-O-Matic"/"Roller" type, which is found on Gibson, Gretsch and Epiphone guitars. This is usually a removable long oval part sitting on adjustable posts. These posts determine the height of the strings. Another is the "Vibrato"/"Hardtail" type, which is common to Fender and Paul Reed Smith guitars. In this case, bridge and tailpiece are one; there is usually a large, rectangular plate bolted directly onto the guitar with a raised heel which holds the strings and individual string saddles acting as the bridge. These saddles determine the height of the string and can be adjusted individually to create either a flat or arched effect, depending on the type of neck your electric guitar has. According to Chicago Luthiers, "Some just have adjusters that raise and lower the whole bridge, but not the individual strings, and some have both. This applies to guitars with tremolo bars as well as those without."
Half a step down from standard, used by bands such as Emmure, TesseracT and Meshuggah in their earlier days, Jeff Loomis (now formerly of Nevermore), Cannibal Corpse mid-career, ERRA, Hypocrisy on End of Disclosure, Adema, American Head Charge, Sonata Arctica in their album Unia, Mushroomhead, Korn in Neidermeyer's Mind demo album, Revocation, Dir En Grey since "Dum Spiro Spero," After The Burial on Forging a Future Self album, Chad Kroeger of Nickelback on the song "This Means War" (Ryan Peake used a six-string), Slayer (on War Zone and Here Comes the Pain from God Hates Us All), and Trivium on Silence in the Snow, The Sin and the Sentence, and all live performances of songs previously written on standard tuned seven string guitars.

Semi-acoustic guitars have a hollow body (similar in depth to a solid-body guitar) and electronic pickups mounted on the body. They work in a similar way to solid-body electric guitars except that, because the hollow body also vibrates, the pickups convert a combination of string and body vibration into an electrical signal. Whereas chambered guitars are made, like solid-body guitars, from a single block of wood, semi-acoustic and full-hollowbody guitars bodies are made from thin sheets of wood. They do not provide enough acoustic volume for live performance, but they can be used unplugged for quiet practice. Semi-acoustics are noted for being able to provide a sweet, plaintive, or funky tone. They are used in many genres, including blues, funk, sixties pop, and indie rock. They generally have cello-style F-shaped sound holes. These can be blocked off to prevent feedback, as in B. B. King's famous Lucille. Feedback can also be reduced by making them with a solid block in the middle of the soundbox.

The theory of evolution says that the longer something has been evolving the more complex it tends to get, and this is certainly true of the electric guitar, which has been evolving for over half a century. Electric guitar sounds rely on the instrument itself, the amplifier through which it is played and also on the loudspeaker system used. Further variables are introduced when miking techniques are taken into consideration, though these days miking is only one of the ways of recording an electric guitar — we also have a number of effective DI techniques from which to choose.
Playing guitar is an exercise in memorization. There’s really no way around it. You have to remember stuff, and the primary thing you have to remember is where notes are on the fretboard. Eventually, muscle and ear memory will kick in and the remembering will get easier, but for the first little while, every time you play guitar, it’s like a pop quiz. It’s not fun to memorize something by brute force, but it pays dividends.
The three Teisco amps included the Teisco-88, the AMP-71R and the Miny. No details are available on these, but they were fairly rectangular cabinets with top-mounted controls. The Teisco-88 had “Teisco” and a big “88” on the grillcloth. The ’66 model was a tube amp, so this likely was, as well. I suspect the others shown were tubers as well. The Miny had the italicized T logo on the front. The AMP-71R had reverb.
An avid skateboarder and hot-rod enthusiast, Ness epitomizes working-class Southern Californian culture. Springsteen comparisons are always dangerous, but the Boss did appear on Ness’ 1999 solo disc Cheating at Solitaire. Springsteen also named Social Distortion’s Heaven and Hell as his favorite record of 1992. Brian Setzer is another kindred spirit and musical collaborator. Ness is one skate punk kid who has stood the test of time.

Line 6 gets a bad rap amongst the guitar community, due to the fact that they apparently operate on a ‘quantity over quality’ business model. The truth is, however, their digital modeling tech has improved vastly since that reputation stuck and they definitely deserve renewed consideration. And that’s all the more true when it comes to beginning players. As you’d likely be learning how to play songs by your favorite artists, this amp with its massive array of presets (128 to be exact) will allow you to mimic your idols with little, if any, effort. And, honestly, it’ll sound pretty great. It even has a built-in tuner, metronome to keep you on time, and real drummer loops so you can get in the swing of playing live.
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Martin is a famous America-based company known for is a variety of impressive electric and acoustic guitars. Their guitars are predominantly manufactured in Pennsylvania and Nazareth. The history of Martin guitars dates back to 1833. From then on, Martin has managed to maintain classiness and quality in their guitars to satiate the thirst of pro players in America.
There are only two Amazon reviews for this instrument, as it is at a higher price point than other guitars, but the reviews are very positive. The rich tone of the cedar as well as the ability to take this classical guitar into the world of electrical pickups makes this a fabulous option for the musician looking to upgrade to a more professional-sounding instrument.
If you just start playing into a Windows PC, you’re going through a software construct called an audio device driver, through another software construct called the Windows Mixer, and finally into your recording program. If you then loop that back to play out so you can hear your guitar plus all effects, you again go from that DAW program to the Windows Mixer and to the device driver. That can take a really, really long time in music terms.
Open Loop Gain: Feedback Solid-state amplifiers are inherently nonlinear. They have a very large ‘open loop gain’ approx 20,000. The amplifier output is (feedback) to the comparator input to reduce the gain to approx 50. Therefore 99.9% of this feedback corrects all instability and non-non-linearity of the amplifier, as explained in amplifiers. The speaker also acts as a large microphone. All non-linear movements and vibrations within the speaker cone, (caused by reflected nodes, chaotic resonances etc) of which there are many, are regenerated back into electricity by the voice coil. This re-generated signal from the voice coil is inadvertanetly fed-back to the solid-state amps comparator input, and re-amplified back to the speaker as recycled distortion.
Planning for this review started right after the January 2018 National Association of Music Merchants (NAMM) show in Anaheim, California. We didn’t notice any significant introductions in the under-$200 electric guitar category during our time there, but new guitars can appear at any time. We’ll be watching out for them, and we’ll get our hands on them as soon as we can.
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An "effects chain" or "signal chain" is formed by connecting two or more stompboxes. Effect chains are typically created between the guitar and the amp or between the preamplifier ("preamp") and the power amp. When a pedal is off or inactive, the electric audio signal coming into the pedal diverts onto a bypass, an unaltered "dry" signal that continues on to other effects down the chain. In this way, a musician can combine effects within a chain in a variety of ways without having to reconnect boxes during a performance.[10] A "controller" or "effects management system" lets the musician create multiple effect chains, so they can select one or several chains by tapping a single switch. The switches are usually organized in a row or a simple grid.[11]


The most common way that bass players connect their instrument to their bass amp is by using a 1/4" patch cord, a standard signal cable used in music and audio applications. Some bassists plug their bass into a small wireless transmitter about the size of a pack of cards, which can be clipped to the strap or to their belt. The transmitter transmits the bass signal to a receiver that is plugged into the amp. Bassists playing in large venues with complex stage set-ups, or a stage design where there is a large distance between performers, or players who like to dance or go out into the audience during the performance, may use wireless transmitters to avoid the risk of having their cable become disconnected while they move about on stage and give themselves more freedom. Another reason that some bassists use wireless transmitters is if their stage setup requires a long cable run between their bass and their amp. Long cable runs can weaken the strength of the signal and can adversely affect tone and sound quality.

As I’ve mentioned before, the topic of guitar pedals can really be a rabbit-hole and some people get really, really into them. They are very often the key to the tone you keep chasing after. However, at the end of the day, a lot of your sound depends on your ability to play your instrument, so please don’t neglect practicing your instrument over trying out different effects.


If you are serious about studying guitar and taking your playing to the next level, you must possess not just a command of chords and scales but an understanding of improvisation and how to express depth and feeling. This certificate program, taught by Berklee’s world-renowned guitar faculty, enables you to develop your guitar technique and hone your skills in any style, from rock, jazz, and country to metal, blues, and beyond. Upon completion, you’ll be able to recreate parts played by your guitar heroes—but more importantly, you’ll be better able to realize your own unique sound.
Leo Fender's work is timeless. This is easily deduced by simply looking at the popularity of both Stratocasters and Telecasters. With that said, Strats are arguably the favorite between the two. A top of the line American-made Stratocaster still costs a bit more than what our budget here is, however, there is an alternative. Fender's plant in Mexico builds great Stratocasters that aren't really behind their American counterparts. You essentially get a near identical performance at a more affordable price due to the stigma. The Fender Classic Series '70s Stratocaster is one such guitar.
This was my first attempt on building pedal. Now I'm hooked. It was such a joy putting it all together and quite a learning experience. I cannot emphasize on reading/studying the instructions thoroughly. I would rate the included instructions a 10, a 5 STAR. Very clear and easy for a novice pedal builder to understand and walk through. Very well illustrated as well. Take your time as you can easily overlook soldering connections. The main problem I encountered was a shorting problem. The two soldering terminals along each side of the tube socket were located very close to the tube base socket and volume/gain pots. Follow the instructions by running a wire between the volume and gain pots, as well as the tube socket. Once, I've addressed this problem, it was clear sailing from there.
I love the action of my El Dorado. I have no more “dead strings” because of the string height and because of the wide nut which allows more room between the strings and the frets. It has an action that provides playability which no other guitar gave me, that is, no: Fender, Gibson, Schecter, Epiphone, Squier, B.C. Rich, Urban, Yamaha, Reverend, Peavey, Ibanez, or ESP. There were others I tried but I don’t remember the names. It sounds great when I play Psychedelic Rock, R&B, Rock, Heartland Rock, Folk Rock, and old Country.

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The first model that comes to mind when this British brand is mentioned is the AC-30, which is basically an AC-15 with twice the output power. Launched in 1958, the amp became famous thanks to the Shadows. Vox deeply influenced the sound of the British music explosion in the 1960's, especially due to The Beatles (who were even endorsers of the brand in their early days), the Rolling Stones and the Kinks. Later, many other artists became real AC-30 addicts, like Brian May (Queen), The Edge (U2) and Radiohead. The brand was bought by Korg in 1992 and, although the AC-30 is still in the catalog, additional series have been introduced, like the Night Train lunchboxes or the Valvetronix, which embrace the digital world.
Giannini guitars were (and are) made by the Tranquilo Giannini S.A. factory, Carlos Weber 124, Sao Paolo, Brazil. They are generally known for being well-made instruments featuring very fancy Brazilian hardwood veneers, as well as for the strange-shaped asymmetrical CraViola models. Probably the most famous, indeed, perhaps only famous, endorser of Giannini guitars was José Feliciano. No reference materials were available on the early Giannini guitars. A catalog from 1971 is available, with a snapshot of the line that probably goes back at least a decade, and certainly forward.
The RP360 XP lets you combine different effects to craft your preferred sound by choosing from its wide variety of options including 74 effects, 32 amp models and 18 cabinet models. Each setup can be saved into one of its 99 user presets, that allow for incredible flexibility. The interface has a bit of a learning curve, but allows for deep editing.
Featuring a tremolo tailpiece, the player is guitarist is guarantee weeks of sustain. In terms of playability, the Jackson JS22 features a rosewood fingerboard that is ultra fast with breathtaking jumbo frets, giving the player a comfortable chording experience and high speed runs with little or no effort. The basswood body features an arched top armed with dangerous looks to compliment its incredible sound, an ideal choice for you.
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We’ve already made numerous allusions to the “split” between Merson and Unicord, so now is probably a good time to talk about it. At some point (almost certainly 1975), Ernie Briefel of Merson decided to part company with Sid Hack’s Unicord. 1975 is the logical choice because flyers copyrighted 1975 are still identified as from Merson Musical Products, a Division of Unicord, Inc, a Gulf + Western Systems Company. All flyers from ’76 on are copyrighted by Unicord, Inc., a Gulf + Western Manufacturing Company. Briefel’s Merson subsequently relocated to Long Island and became Music Technology, Incorporated (MTI). This company took the distribution of Giannini guitars with it.
By and large, time-based effects split the guitar output into two identical signals and momentarily hold one back while allowing the other to play in real time. The two signals are mixed back into one at the output. Usually you can control the length of the delay and the amount of the signal that is affected versus the part that stays "dry" (unaffected). This latter control—found on most effects—is usually called the level control.
The electric guitar ("El Gtr" in engineer shorthand) is one of the easiest instruments to record. Even a modest rig-a good guitar coupled with a decent amplifier-makes the engineer's job a cinch, offering plenty of level, a variety of easily adjustable tones, and-with most modern amps, at least-an assortment of "flavor enhancers" such as tube saturation, overdrive, and compression. In addition, the limited bandwidth of a typical electric-guitar track is ideally suited to the frequency response of affordable dynamic microphones. But that doesn't mean that using the age-old standard of miking guitar amps-a Shure SM57 shoved up against the grille cloth-is the best way to get El Gtr to stand out in a mix.
When technology changed from valve to solid-state, it was noticed that solid-state amplifiers lacked warmth and bass performance, and had to be twice as powerful as valve amplifiers, to sound as loud. Current Drive: Solid-state amplifiers behave in ‘Voltage Drive’. This acts as a short circuit (zero output impedance, or 100% damping factor) across the speakers, causing excessive damping, which reduces efficiency, limiting responsiveness. Valve amplifiers behave in ‘Current Drive’. This represents an open circuit across the speaker without over damping, allowing maximum response and efficiency.
1950s: occasional Adirondack red spruce. In 1952 or 1953, rumor has it Martin bought a large supply of Engelmann spruce from government surplus. Though Martin preferred Adirondack Red Spruce, it was no longer available after the mid-1940s because all of the large trees had been decimated. Martin would have liked to switch from Sitka to Engelmann because he felt that Engelmann was closer to Adi Red Spruce than Sitka was. He could not however find anyone who was cutting Engelmann commercially, so they went back to Sitka.
Les Paul developed one of the first practical solid-bodied electrics made of wood, which he dubbed "The Log". He built the prototype himself -- possible the first practical solid-bodied electric -- in the late 1930s. In 1941, he approached Gibson about making it, Gibson, but they weren't initially interested. Meanwhile, Leo Fender had been independently been developing his own solid bodied guitar, which was released commercially as the Esquire in 1950. By then, lots of people were recording electric guitar.

Matsumoku is one of the Japanese manufacturers that did not survive long after the heyday of the 1970s guitar market despite having a long tradition of quality stringed instrument craftsmanship. Matsumoku produced guitars for major manufacturers Greco, Guyatone and Yamaha. Matsumoku made Arai, Aria, Aria Pro II and Aria Diamond badges, with Aria being their primary badge for a majority of this time frame. Badged guitars known to have been made by Matsumoku include Apollo, Arita, Barclay, Burny, Capri, Columbus, Conrad, Cortez (electrics only), Country, Cutler, Dia, Domino, Electra, Epiphone, Granada, Hi Lo, Howard, Ibanez, Lindberg, Lyle, Luxor, Maxitone (this guitar differs from Tama's Maxitone badge), Mayfair, Memphis, Montclair, Pan, Pearl (electrics only), Raven, Stewart, Tempo, Univox ,Vantage, Ventura, Vision, Volhox, Washburn (in 1979 and 1980), Westbury, Westminster and Westone. Possible Matsumoku badges include: Bruno, Crestwood, Conqueror, Eros, Mako, Memphis, Orlando and Toledo.
One of the oldest guitar effects, vibrato changes the pitch of the signal at a constant shifting rate. Vibrato adds motion to your tone, but without the “choppy” feel of a tremolo. Vibrato adds a more fluid movement. The slightly detuned, slightly chorus-ey modulation emphasizes bends and makes chords more interesting to the listener. Jimi Hendrix was a visionary user of the Uni-Vibe, which at its core is a vibrato pedal.
To understand the difference between parallel and series wiring of two pickups, check out the two diagrams. In the first, the two pickups are wired in parallel, so both pickups’ inputs and outputs are connected together. This is one of the main reasons why a Strat usually has a very bright tone—parallel wiring allows the signal from each pickup to reach the output jack by the shortest possible route. The result is that the high frequencies reach the output jack almost unchecked, giving your Strat that sparkling sound we all love so much.
Pickup configuration refers to the number and types of pickups installed on a guitar, and its position on the body. The two most common types of pickups include singlecoil, known for its crisp and punchy sound and the fatter sounding humbucker. For beginners, you'll have to once again look up to artists who play your preferred music genre, to see which pickups they are using to get their sound. In addition to getting the right sound, sonic flexibility is also an important consideration and the general rule is that the more pickups installed, the more sound varieties you can get. The most common configuration is HH, which stand for dual humbuckers, because of their overdrive and distortion friendly sound. The SSS (three single-coils) configuration is also popular, as seen on the Stratocaster, allowing for a more versatile tone options. There are other variations that combine both single coils and humbuckers, such as SSH (two single coils and a humbucker), for an even wider selection of tones.

The Les Paul Special VE has a Poplar body with a sleek look thanks to the Vintage Worn finish and no binding on the neck or body. The Les Paul VE is cut to the same classic profile of all Les Pauls and has a comfortable and fast Mahogany bolt-on neck with a 1960's SlimTaper D profile. The Rosewood fingerboard has traditional Pearloid "Dot" inlays, a 24.75” scale, a 14” radius, 22 medium jumbo frets, and a standard 1-11/16” nut. Just below the headstock is the famed “bell” shaped truss rod cover found on every Les Paul since the early '50s with “Vintage Edition” in white. 
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