Pitch-shifters work by slicing the incoming audio into extremely short sections (typically a few tens of milliseconds long) and then lengthening each section where the pitch is to be decreased, or shortening each section where the pitch is to be increased. Though cross-fading algorithms and other techniques are used to hide the splice points, most pitch-shifters tend to sound grainy or warbly when used to create large amounts of shift (a couple of semitones or more), though they can sound very natural when used to create subtle detuning effects, using shifts of a few cents. A refinement of the system, designed for use with monophonic sources, attempts to synchronise the splicing process with whole numbers of cycles of the input signal, which makes the whole thing sound a lot smoother but, as soon as you present these devices with chords or other complex sounds, the splices again become audible.

A combination of standard 6 string tuning and a 7th string dropped one full step for power chords, used by deathcore bands such as Suicide Silence, Oceano, and Whitechapel, as well as other bands such as Lacuna Coil, Blotted Science, In This Moment, Chimaira (on Pass Out of Existence and Crown of Phantoms), and occasionally Scar Symmetry, Escape the Fate, King 810, The Devil Wears Prada, Dry Kill Logic, Eldest 11, December In Red, A Fall To Break, and CFO$ on some songs. Triumphant Return guitarist Matti varies this tuning by dropping both the low B to A and low E to D and raising the high B and E a half-step to C and F (A-D-A-D-G-C-F).
A true guitar polymath, Nels Cline has tackled everything from gothic country rock with the Geraldine Fibbers to a full remake of John Coltrane's late improvisational masterwork, Interstellar Space. He's best known, of course, as Wilco's gangly guitar hero, lurching into extended seizures ("Spiders [Kidsmoke]") or spiraling into lyrical jam flights ("Impossible Germany"). "Nels can play anything," Jeff Tweedy said. "We struggle with his spot in the band sometimes – but we always come to a place that's unique and interesting because we did struggle."
Semi-hollow body electric guitars are basically a middle ground between a solid body electric and a fully hollow body electric guitar. Jazz, country, and rock guitarists alike may gravitate towards semi-hollow body electric guitars for several reasons. One of the main reasons is that semi-hollow body guitars still produce that rich, resonant sound of a hollow instrument, but they typically have a solid or sometimes chambered center block in between the top and back. This design helps fight off that unwanted body-resonant feedback we spoke about before while even adding some extra sustain. Gibson offers a wide selection of semi-hollow body electric guitars, which include the iconic Gibson ES-335. Guitar brands such as Gretsch and Ibanez are also widely recognized for their semi-hollow body electric guitars.
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