Adolph Rickenbacher was born in Switzerland in 1886 and emigrated to the United States with relatives after the death of his parents. Sometime after moving to Los Angeles in 1918, he changed his surname to “Rickenbacker”. This was done probably in order to avoid German connotations in light of the recently concluded First World War as well as to capitalize on Adolph’s distant relation to World War I flying ace Eddie Rickenbacker. In 1925, Adolph Rickenbacker and two partners formed the Rickenbacker Manufacturing Company and incorporated it in 1927. By the time he met George Beauchamp and began manufacturing metal bodies for the “Nationals” being produced by the National String Instruments Corporation, Rickenbacker was a highly skilled production engineer and machinist. Adolph soon became a shareholder in National and, with the assistance of his Rickenbacker Manufacturing Company, National was able to boost production to as many as fifty guitars a day.[4]


In the grand scheme of things, fixed bridges are as simple as it gets. Aside from saddles, which are used to tune in intonation, there are usually no other moving parts involved. The benefit of fixed bridges is their ability to retain intonation and tuning over time. If you're just starting out, sticking with a fixed bridge will make your life much easier. However, it does have its limitations compared to a tremolo bridge.
The strings movement moves the magnetic field creating current in the coil of the pickup. The string does not create the current the movement does. If you placed a solenoid beneath the pickup and moved the pickup you would also create a current in the coil. If you took the strings off the guitar, and held a hammer head over the pickup and activated the solenoid you would get a current in the coil.
Though you can certainly buy any guitar of your choice by looking at the specs, this is not something a true music lover would do. If you get attracted towards guitars after being inspired by your favorite artist, then what you expect is to have your guitar produce that particular tone which your idol does. Of course, you cannot produce that typical signature tones from any guitar model. But how about if you get that guitar which your artist have?
Very disappointed! This was a gift from Santa this morning and the amp failed miserably. Would not work at all. Not with a battery or an adapter(which by the way is not included). Amp started to smell like it was burning/melting even though it showed no power at all. Son is very disappointed to say the least and so is mommy. Only thing he wanted was an electric guitar and he couldn't even enjoy it this morning. How do I explain returning it to Santa...
When playing the electric guitar, you’ll have to simultaneously use both hands. One hand will be responsible for fretting and the other hand will be responsible for strumming or plucking. Depending on which is your more comfortable side and whether the electric guitar is designed more for one side than the other, it will impact your play style and music quality.

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Early electrics weren’t built for distortion. The idea was to create a loud, clean sound and, with a few notable exceptions, that’s what players who utilize this type of guitar are looking for today. But even without overdrive this design has one inherent problem: As the volume goes up, hollow-body guitars become highly susceptible to feedback. The next level of electric guitar evolution, the semi-hollow body, made a few strides in dealing with this issue.
A functionally solid-body electric guitar was designed and built in 1940 by Les Paul from an Epiphone acoustic archtop. His "log guitar" (so called because it consisted of a simple 4x4 wood post with a neck attached to it and homemade pickups and hardware, with two detachable Epiphone hollow-body halves attached to the sides for appearance only) shares nothing in design or hardware with the solid-body Gibson Les Paul introduced in 1952. However, the feedback associated with hollow-bodied electric guitars was understood long before Paul's "log" was created in 1940; Gage Brewer's Ro-Pat-In of 1932 had a top so heavily reinforced that it essentially functioned as a solid-body instrument.[2] In 1945, Richard D. Bourgerie made an electric guitar pickup and amplifier for professional guitar player George Barnes. Bourgerie worked through World War II at Howard Radio Company, making electronic equipment for the American military. Barnes showed the result to Les Paul, who then arranged for Bourgerie to have one made for him.
If you are looking for a specific guitar wiring diagram, I would contact the manufacturer of your guitar. Most guitars have similar style wirings. If you have a Stratocaster style guitar that is made by another company, I would go ahead and just use a Strat wiring diagram. I have listed a few books on electric guitar wiring in my book section. Go to the electric guitar pickup wiring section for more information.
James Williamson was the man who facilitated Iggy Pop’s transition from self-lacerating Stooges frontman to solo artist, icon and all-around elder statesman of punk. In a way, Williamson was the only man for the job. He shared Iggy and the Stooges’ Detroit garage rock roots and was a friend of Stooges founding guitarist Ron Asheton during the mid Sixties.
Check the action and clearance of the guitar strings by playing it before you begin setup. There should be 3/64-inch between the fret and the string on the treble side, and 5/64-inch on the bass side. Check that there is no buzzing when you play high up on the neck, and that the strings are not too difficult to push. If you hear buzzing, the neck must be corrected for underbow; if the strings are too far from the frets, the neck must be corrected for overbow.
Regarding truss rods, all vintage Martin instruments post-1934 have *non-adustable* truss rods (T rod). This means the neck better be straight, otherwise an expensive repair will be in order. To check neck straightness on a guitar, first tune the guitar to pitch. Then hold the low-E string down at the 1st and 14th frets. Note the distance between the bottom of the low-E string, and the 7th fret. You should be able to put a medium guitar pick in this space. Any more, and the neck is "bowed". Any less, and the neck is "back bowed". Repeat this with the high-E string (the same results should be seen; if not, the neck has a "twist" to it).
Ibanez are a Japanese musical instrument company. Although Yamaha is a better known Japanese musical instrument company, Ibanez exceeds expectations for electric guitars. This brand of guitars stands out in the world of rock guitars. They gained popularity in the 1980s when they introduced their original designs for guitars based on Steve Vai’s JEM Universal. Their designs have since become some of the biggest selling metal guitars. The Ibanez guitars are used by guitarists such as Steve Vai, Paul Gilbert, and Joe Satriani. In addition, Ibanez guitars tend to be very affordable, giving you a great guitar for a cheaper price.
Let’s take a closer look at what’s known as the switching matrix. A switch’s poles are like separate channels that aren’t connected until you add a jumper wire between them. A SPST or SPDT switch has only one of these channels, while a DPDT switch has two. Likewise, 3PDT and 4PDT switches have three and four channels, respectively. A switch’s throws are simply the different sides of a switch. For example, a DPDT on/on switch has two channels (poles) with three lugs on each channel. Engaging the switch turns on one side or the other. When one signal is turned on, the other is turned off.
Reverb is the persistence of sound in a particular space after the original sound is removed. When sound is produced in a space, a large number of echoes build up and then slowly decay as the sound is absorbed by the walls and air, creating reverberation, or reverb. A plate reverb system uses an electromechanical transducer (actuator), similar to the driver in a loudspeaker, to create vibration in a plate of sheet metal. A pickup captures the vibrations as they bounce across the plate, and the result is output as an audio signal. A spring reverb system uses a transducer at one end of a spring and a pickup at the other, similar to those used in plate reverbs, to create and capture vibrations within a metal spring. Guitar amplifiers frequently incorporate spring reverbs due to their compact construction. Spring reverberators were once widely used in semi-professional recording due to their modest cost and small size. Due to quality problems and improved digital reverb units, spring reverberators are declining rapidly in use. Digital reverb units use various signal processing algorithms in order to create the reverb effect. Since reverberation is essentially caused by a very large number of echoes, simple DSPs use multiple feedback delay circuits to create a large, decaying series of echoes that die out over time.
A switch is a device that segments networks into different subnets. Segmenting the network into different subnets keeps one network from overloading with traffic. Therefore, a switch forwards all data in the data layer and sometimes the network layer as it filters the data. A switch allows a connection to be established and it terminates a connection when there is no longer a session to support. Prior to switches there were hubs. Hubs also connected multiple independent (connected) modules in a network, but they were not as efficient as switches. Since most switches work in Layer 2, and not in Layer 1 like a hub, they are better at filtering data. A switch looks for Ethernet MAC addresses, keeps a table (the bridge forwarding table) of these addresses, and navigates the switch between ports. The switch prevents collisions and gives full bandwidth to each connection at the switch port. Switches save bandwidth by only sending traffic to destinations that have traffic. When a switch switches Ethernet frames, they monitor the traffic for the response from that frame and see what device, on what port, responds to that flooded frame. There are different types of switches that range from "dumb" switches that lack manageability and can monitor only 4-8 ports to "managed" switches that can get statistics on switch traffic, monitor connections, and hard-code up to 96 port speeds and duplex. Then again, there are "chassis-based" switches with blades or cards that perform not just switching, but routing and intrusion detection too! If you are interested in this, look into Cisco's Catalyst 6500 Series. Another type of switch preferred by large enterprises is the "Layer 3 Switch," because it has the functionality of a router .

In some modern valve effects, the "dirty" or "gritty" tone is actually achieved not by high voltage, but by running the circuit at voltages that are too low for the circuit components, resulting in greater non-linearity and distortion. These designs are referred to as "starved plate" configurations, and result in an "amp death" sound.[citation needed]
That hand-built prototype, an anonymous white guitar, had most of the features of what would become the Telecaster. It was designed in the spirit of the solid-body Hawaiian guitars manufactured by Rickenbacker – small, simple units made of Bakelite and aluminum with the parts bolted together—but with wooden construction. (Rickenbacker, then spelled ‘Rickenbacher,’ also offered a solid Bakelite-bodied electric Spanish guitar in 1935 that seemed to presage details of Fender’s design.)
Providing all of the necessary features expected in a quality electric guitar at a budget-friendly price, the Epiphone Les Paul Special II is perfect for those just beginning their musical journey or the seasoned guitarist looking for an everyday guitar for practice. The 650R humbucker pickups combined with the open coil design deliver strong and sustained tones. As seen on all Epiphone guitars, the Special II has over 500K potentiometer for both tone and volume, and a toggle selector with a 3-way pickup to focus in on the clarity of the sound and decreased excess humming. The body and neck are made with mahogany, while the fretboard has dot inlays within the rosewood design. String changing is also made easier due to the stopbar tailpiece, which helps to add more sustain in sound when combined with the LockTone Tune-O-Matic bridge. With all of these features at such a reasonable price point, the Epiphone Les Paul Special II is a strong contender included on this list.

After the Beatles 1965 summer tour, Paul McCartney frequently used a left-handed 1964 4001S FG Rickenbacker bass, as its tone was better suited to recording than the lightweight Höfner basses he had used previously. The instrument became popular with other bassists influenced by his highly melodic style, as it produces a clear tone even when played high up the neck, its deep cutaways allowing easy access to the higher frets.
The Whammy – If you’re familiar with the tremolo arm, or “Whammy bar,” then you already have an idea of what this pedal can do. Usually, the Whammy pedal is a rocker type, much like the wah, which shifts the pitch up and down as you rock it back and forth. Eddie Van Halen, Jimi Hendrix and Joe Satriani are a few of the artists you can listen to for a general feel of this pedal’s potential.
The pickups on this guitar are really cool and not found on any other model that I’ve seen.  They are really loud single coils reading out at 5.58k at the bridge, and 5.90k at the neck.  The pole piece screws even have some “gold foil” surrounding them, which is really cool and not usually seen.  These pickups sound very close to vintage American p90s, and they have this loud, articulate, sparkly clean tone combined with a really grindy dirty tone.  These pups are special, seriously!  Also, those switches were standard fare through the late 60s on most Matsumoku guitars.
The Effect: Expression pedals are nowhere near as popular as some other guitar effects. However, they have the power to make or break your guitar tone, depending on how far you are willing to go. At their very core, expression pedals are nothing more than a potentiometer in a pedal form. They can be as simple as that, which is represented beautifully by the Mission Engineering Inc EP­1, but there definitely are more advanced designs available. The purpose of an expression unit in your signal chain is to give you more control over equipment which supports this kind of accessory. We’re talking rack mounted effects, digital processors, guitar effects pedals and more. In some cases they are downright necessary, but in most they offer a whole new level of control over the effect in question. Despite their inherent simplicity, finding a good one still take some effort, lots of research and planning.
While recording AC/DC's Back In Black, Tony Platt used a pair of condenser mics to pick up different speaker cones and give a wider sound to each guitar: "I developed a technique for recording guitars with two microphones roughly pointing at different speakers, which can be spread out in the stereo mix so it's not just a series of mono point sources. It makes for a more open-sounding guitar. That sound suited their particular technique, which involved Angus and Malcolm playing the same chords but with different inversions to get a very big unison guitar sound."
Great article. Thank you!However I've had a lot of experience with Squier guitars. They often come in at $200, sometimes on sale for $129 but I live in a college town and have had many Squiers. All have very sharp fret ends which discourage beginners not knowing they must be filed. IDK about any of the others but this is my only complaint. Squier quality and playability (after fretwork) is amazing at that price point.
You have to take into account that these are low budget guitars, so there will be compromises in terms of materials, pickups and hardware. The experienced guitar player might require a higher standard. That being said, if you have between a 100 and 300 dollars to spend and you do want to learn to play guitar than these guitars are really worth the investment.
A way to increase the usability of the sound acquired this way is to wire a capacitor in series with the pickup that has its electric polarity reversed. This filters out that pickup's lower frequencies and thus preserves the corresponding frequencies from the other pickup. The resulting sound is fuller and stronger, yet still different from the standard in-phase combinations, resembling the sound of a "cocked wah" (a wah-wah pedal set in a fixed position). The capacitor used for this is usually in the 20–100 nF range.[23]

The objects connected to the red and purple wires are a capacitor and resistor in series. The round brown object is a capacitor, typically around .001 microfarads. The rectangular brown object is a resistor, typically around 150K ohms. Increasing the value of the capacitor will expand the treble range you're preserving. Too large a value, end you'll be preserving midrange, too. Too small a value and you'll only be preserving the highest treble frequencies.
First off, it has three effects loops that let you control pedals (or groups of pedals) right from the MS-3. It can also be used as a foot controller for amplifiers, which allows you to change the channel on your favorite amps and employ effects in the comfort of a single compact box. This makes the MS-3 a very versatile unit, catering to vintage amp/pedal users while adding the comfort of modern digital effects processing and preset control. Since it has its own noise suppressor and global EQ, you can tame noisy pedals and shape their tone a bit more. All of these are on top of the many built-in effects that is already built into the unit, which are Boss quality good by themselves.
I've been a guitar player for decades but only recently became serious about working on my instruments. In my research, I’ve found hundreds of articles about instrument repair, and while many are fantastic and chock full of information that’s invaluable to musicians, a lot is impractical or requires more space or specialized tools than most of us have. Plus, some repairs, such as fretwork, nut replacement, under-saddle pickup installation and finish repairs are best left to professionals.
The theory of evolution says that the longer something has been evolving the more complex it tends to get, and this is certainly true of the electric guitar, which has been evolving for over half a century. Electric guitar sounds rely on the instrument itself, the amplifier through which it is played and also on the loudspeaker system used. Further variables are introduced when miking techniques are taken into consideration, though these days miking is only one of the ways of recording an electric guitar — we also have a number of effective DI techniques from which to choose.
Unlike a piano or the voices of a choir, the guitar (in standard tuning) has difficulty playing the chords as stacks of thirds, which would require the left hand to span too many frets,[40] particularly for dominant seventh chords, as explained below. If in a particular tuning chords cannot be played in closed position, then they often can be played in open position; similarly, if in a particular tuning chords cannot be played in root position, they can often be played in inverted positions. A chord is inverted when the bass note is not the root note. Additional chords can be generated with drop-2 (or drop-3) voicing, which are discussed for standard tuning's implementation of dominant seventh chords (below).
Some single cabinets use mixed speaker sizes, although this is less common. Examples include MESA Engineering's 1x15"/4x10" cabinet,[8] Peavey's PVH 1516, which has 1x15" and 2x8" speakers.[9] and Traynor's TC1510 combo, which has 1x15" and 2x10". Other large single cabinets with speaker sizes other than 10", 12" or 15" are less commonly used, but they do exist. Examples include the 6x8" and 8x8" cab configurations. Users of two cabinets may use two 4x10" cabinets (more easy to transport than a single 8x10" cab), a 15" cab and a 2x10" cab, or other variations (e.g., a 2x15" cab and a 4x10" cab).
That day, I learned about the array of amazing things you could do with effects pedals. Sure, guitar is about your hands, but you also have to play with your feet. You have to know when a song needs more distortion, and when a song needs a jangly chorus with reverb. Without effects pedals, you’re painting with only primary colors, you’re singing in only a major key, movie-acting with one emotion. Guitar pedals open up a world for you in music. Of course wonderful music has been made in the time before such magical machines existed, and great music will continue to be made without them as well. They’re just tools after all. But what glorious tools they can be.
Much of the difference between one make of guitar and another is in the player’s head. I doubt whether many people listening would really notice the difference and they certainly wouldn’t care. That said, there are differences in feel and in the player’s perception of the sound. I currently have four Gibsons and two Fenders, so you can see where my sympathies lie, but currently I’m more taken with either of my two Gretschs. One point of correction about scale length though. Over the years 25.5″ became standardised, probably by Martin. Fender copied this when it produced the Broadcaster/ Nocaster/ Telecaster since 25.5″ was the scale length for a guitar and Fender had no previous experience hence the poor neck radius and bad controls. Gibson, being actually considerably more innovative (I.e. the truss rod, the archtop, the raised finger rest/ scratch plate, controls for each pickup etc etc in fact most of the fundamentals we now take for granted) had worked out that scale length should be a function of body size. All of Gibson’s full size (17″ and up) guitars have 25.5″ scale lengths. Smaller bodies get shorter necks. So 24.75″ is only one of Gibson’s scale lengths sunce it has used shorter and longer as appropriate.
The electric guitar was born out of necessity. Going back to the big band era, acoustic guitar players needed an instrument that could be heard over all the brass and woodwind instruments. They also need to be heard over the banjos and mandolins on the front porch. In the 1930s, companies such as Rickenbacker and Gibson started to add guitar pickups to their instruments, which allowed musicians to plug them into an amplifier for added volume. Rickenbacker added a pickup to their Hawaiian guitar (also known as a lap steel guitar) “Frying Pan” model, and similarly, Gibson added a pickup to their electric Hawaiian EH-150 model. Soon after that, Gibson introduced the iconic ES-150, which gave players the very best of both worlds. It gave guitarists a world-class Gibson hollow body guitar with a built-in pickup, which made it the perfect fit for guitarists who played large ensembles. In 1951, Fender revolutionized the electric guitar market even further by unveiling the first ever mass-produced solid body electric guitar, now known as the Telecaster, which was introduced in order to combat the feedback that hollow body electric guitars produced. Then in 1952, Gibson worked closely with one of the most widely respected guitarists of the era to create the first Gibson solid body electric guitar, now known as the Les Paul and named after its co-inventor.
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